12.5. Tracking Currency Investments

Currency investment is when you decide to invest in a different country's currency, and hope that it will rise in value relative your own currency.

When you enter these transactions into GnuCash, you will have to decide on how much detail you would like to have.

If you are not interested in detail at all, a very simple account structure would suffice:


    Assets:Investments:Currency:Bank (USD)
    Assets:Investments:Currency:XXX (XXX)
    

You would simply enter transfers between the two accounts, noting exchange rates as you went.

But, if you do want to be able to track capital gains or losses, as well as any fees, you do need a more complex account structure, such as:


    Assets:Investments:Currency:Bank (USD)
    Assets:Investments:Currency:Currency Bank:XXX (XXX)
    Expenses:Investments:Currency:Currency Bank:XXX (XXX)
    Income:Investments:Currency Bank:Capital Gains:XXX (XXX)
    

12.5.1. Purchasing Currency

When purchasing another currency, you will buy a certain number of units of foreign currency with your own currency, at a particular rate. For example, you might buy USD 10,000 worth of Andorran Francs, at 5 Francs to the dollar, with a transaction fee of $150.

Buy Currency
Attività:Investimenti:Valuta:BancaPrelievo10,000
Expenses:Investments:Currency:Currency Bank:ADFDeposito150
Assets:Investments:Currency:ADFDeposito49,250

The Exchange Rate window should pop up when you leave the last row in the split above (Currency Transaction). If this window does not pop up, right click on the row or select Actions, and select Edit Exchange Rate. In the Exchange Rate window you specify the exchange rate you got from the bank.

12.5.2. Vendere un investimento in valuta

Entering a currency sale is done in the same way as a currency buy except that you are now transferring money from the Currency account to your Savings account (very similar to Sezione 9.7, «Vendere le azioni»).

The proper recording of the currency sale *must* account for realized gains or losses. This can be done using a split transaction. In the split transaction, you must account for the profit (or loss) as coming from an Income:Capital Gains account (or Expenses:Capital Loss). To balance this income, you will need to enter the Currency asset twice in the split—once to record the actual sale (using the correct amount and correct exchange rate), and once to balance the income profit (setting the amount to 0).

In breve, una transazione di vendita per la valuta, dovrebbe assomigliare a quella riportata più sotto, vista di nuovo dal conto Attività:Investimenti:Valuta:Banca.

Tabella 12.1. Schema per la vendita di valuta con una transazione suddivisa

ContoDepositoPrelievo
Attività:Investimenti:Valuta:BancaImporto venduto - Imposta di cambio 
Uscite:Investimenti:Valuta:Valuta Banca:XXXImposta di cambio 
Attività:Investimenti:Valuta:XXX Importo venduto
Entrate:Investimenti:Valuta Banca:Guadagni in capitale:XXX[PERDITA]UTILE
Attività:Investimenti:Valuta:XXXPROFITTO (con trasferisci a = 0)[PERDITA (con trasferisci a = 0) ]